Security Sector Reforms and Nigeria’s Defense Strategy in the 21st Century


  • Olayemi Durotimi AKINWUMI Federal University, Lokoja NIGERIA
  • Erunke Canice ERUNKE Nasarawa State University, Keffi NIGERIA
  • Suleiman YUNUSA Nasarawa State University, Keffi NIGERIA


Defense, Democratic survival, Reforms, Security and Strategies


The main thrust of this study is to examine the nature of security sector reforms in not only Third World countries, but essentially to interrogate the dynamics and workings of Nigeria’s security architecture, and hence, demonstrate the extent to which the security system of the Nigerian state has impinged on the existence of its citizens using defense strategies as a point of departure. To most critics argue that the nation’s security system has under performed. This is in spite of humongous budgetary allocations to the defense sub-sector as well as the procurement of high-tech armory in several of the nation’s military and paramilitary locations across the country. Of particular interest to this work is the weak security outlook of the nation’s security base and the corresponding failure of the security network to live its usefulness in adequately manning and controlling increasing security breaches across troubled spots in Nigeria. The Nigerian state has been overrun by a number of insurgency attacks, banditry, terrorism; inter and intra-ethnic conflicts, herders-farmer’s conflicts, kidnapping for ransom, and several myriads of vices in recent times and, still counting. Undoubtedly, the government’s response to this menace through security sector reforms namely, security sector governance, provision of security oversights and the management of security frames, have hardly yielded any meaningful results. This study is an exploratory study and relies on works of experts and intelligentsias as source of data collection and evaluation, particularly in the broader area of security studies. The paper sums up with recommendations to the effect that government and other stakeholders can improve more on matters of security as way of ameliorating the unhealthy security situation in the country as is currently being experienced.

Author Biographies

Olayemi Durotimi AKINWUMI, Federal University, Lokoja NIGERIA

Department of History and International Relations

Erunke Canice ERUNKE, Nasarawa State University, Keffi NIGERIA

Department of Political Science

Suleiman YUNUSA, Nasarawa State University, Keffi NIGERIA

Department of Political Science




How to Cite

AKINWUMI, O. D., ERUNKE, E. C., & YUNUSA, S. (2023). Security Sector Reforms and Nigeria’s Defense Strategy in the 21st Century. Socialscientia: Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 8(2). Retrieved from