Migration across the Mediterranean
An Exploration of its Causative Factors and the Role of International Organization for Migration in Effective Migration Management
Keywords:Effective Migration Management
Migration is a global phenomenon caused not only by economic factors, but also by social, political, cultural, environmental, health, education and other factors. In the case of Africa, the rising level of migration across the Mediterranean gives cause for concern. Authoritarian regimes in quasi-democratic regalia at home, a lack of security and quest for better and secured economic environment necessitates migration. In the past decades, also there has been a sporadic increase in brain drain (labour migration) due to globalization, disparities in the development levels of countries, culture and environment, social instability, repression of political opposition and muzzling of fundamental freedoms and war. In worse case scenarios, peoples preferred to drown in the Mediterranean Sea than remain alive in their home countries due to lack of economic and political prospects. Against the backdrop of the above, the objective of this paper was to explore the trajectories of migration across the Mediterranean with emphasis on its causes and challenges in relation to the roles of International Organization for Migration (IOM). The study relied on secondary materials for evidence while adopting the push and pull theory as the frame of analysis. The results of the study showed that the major push factors were both political, social and economic related, for which the main motives for migration were insecurity, lack of social justice, marginalization and repressive regime; others were unemployment, low or instable income, galloping inflation, economic downturn and poverty. Likewise, the pull factors were composite of political, social and economic, whereby the motivation to migrate was driven by political stability and secured environment, high wages, social security, the opportunity to save and secure better future as well as access to quality education. Relevant recommendations were made to ensure effective migration management.