THE BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS - FUNDAMENTALS OF SCHEMA-ORIENTED THERAPY AND IMPACT TECHNIQUES IN PSYCHOTHERAPY
Contemporary psychotherapy has experienced an extraordinary development thanks to Schema-oriented psychotherapy, with its obligation to and its knowledge generated from its integration of Therapy Schools. The main constructs that root Schema-based psychotherapy are, above all, the Schema Model, the Coping Strategies, the Mode Model, Plan-Analysis and Consistency Theory; all rooted in the theory of the basic psychological needs. The present article discourses the Basic Psychological Needs. It explains the general concept of Basic Psychological Needs briefly and subsequently explicates the four basic needs of "Relationship", "Self-Worth", "Handling" and "Pleasure". The article illustrates in regards to each of the basic needs, to what extent it is scientific-theoretically compatible with previous influential concepts in psychotherapy. Further it illustrates the ontology of the needs, above all as an indication of a naturally innate and universal availability of the basic needs to all people. In addition, it illustrates the necessity of these basic needs for mental health. Furthermore, the positioning of the Basic Psychological Needs in Schema Oriented Psychotherapy is illustrated particularly in the principles of equilibrium and of adequate basic need fulfilment. The following cross-disciplinarily section demonstrates how the concept of exhilaration in the Art of Dramaturgy, as key to the Impact Strategy in Psychotherapy, reflects the four Basic Needs. The article concludes with a short reflection on con-junction, hierarchy and psychotherapeutic advantage of consistently observing the basic needs of clients.